Peel the papery skin off a 1-2 inch piece of your ginger or turmeric.
Grate 2 tablespoons of either (Do not combine. Make each flavor separately).
Place in the mason jar. Add 1 tablespoon sugar and 2 tablespoons water.
Stir, cover and store in a cool location out of direct sunlight.
Each day for the next 5-7 days add 1 tbs of grated ginger or turmeric, 1 tbs sugar, and 2 tbs water, and stir.
At day 5 begin looking for signs of fermentation: a beer-like fragrance, and bubbles at the top of the mixture. When these signs are evident you bug is ready for a soda preparation.